Modeling of future COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths, by vaccination rates and nonpharmaceutical intervention scenarios—United States, April–September 2021

Borchering, R. K., Viboud, C., Howerton, E., Smith, C. P., Truelove, S., Runge, M. C., Reich, N.G., Contamin, L., Levander, J., Salerno, J., van Panhuis, W., Kinsey, M., Tallaksen, K., Obrecht, R.F., Asher, L., Costello, C., Kelbaugh, M., Wilson, S., Shin, L., Gallagher, M.E., Mullany, L.C., Rainwater-Lovett, K., Lemaitre, J.C., Dent, J., Grantz, K.H., Kaminsky, J., Lauer, S.A., Lee, E.C., Meredith, H.R., Perez-Saez, J., Keegan, L.T., Karlen, D., Chinazzi, M., Davis, J.T., Mu, K., Xiong, X., Pastore y Piontti, A., Vespignani, V., Srivastava, A., Porebski, P., Venkatramanan, S., Adiga, A., Lewis, B., Klahn, B., Outten, J., Schlitt, J., Corbett, P., Telionis, P.A., Wang, L., Peddireddy, A.S., Hurt, B., Chen, J., Vullikanti, A., Marathe, M., Healy, J.M., Slayton, R.B., Biggerstaff, M., Johansson, M.A., Shea, K., & Lessler, J. (2021). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 70(19), 719.


What is already known about this topic?

Increases in COVID-19 cases in March and early April occurred despite a large-scale vaccination program. Increases coincided with the spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants and relaxation of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs).

What is added by this report?

Data from six models indicate that with high vaccination coverage and moderate NPI adherence, hospitalizations and deaths will likely remain low nationally, with a sharp decline in cases projected by July 2021. Lower NPI adherence could lead to substantial increases in severe COVID-19 outcomes, even with improved vaccination coverage.

What are the implications for public health practice?

High vaccination coverage and compliance with NPIs are essential to control COVID-19 and prevent surges in hospitalizations and deaths in the coming months.

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Recommended citation: Borchering RK, Viboud C, Howerton E, et al. "Modeling of Future COVID-19 Cases, Hospitalizations, and Deaths, by Vaccination Rates and Nonpharmaceutical Intervention Scenarios — United States, April–September 2021". MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:719–724. DOI: